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High Proportions of Patients With Advanced HIV Are Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced: Hospitalization Outcomes From 2 Sub-Saharan African Sites

  • 2018/03/04
Type de publication
  • Articles
  • Ousley J
  • Niyibizi AA
  • Wanjala S
  • Vandenbulcke A
  • Kirubi B
  • Omwoyo W
  • Price J
  • Salumu L
  • Szumilin E
  • Spiers S
  • Van Cutsem G
  • Mashako M
  • Mangana F
  • Moudarichirou R
  • Harrison R
  • Kalwangila T
  • Lumowo G
  • Lambert V
  • Maman D
  • VIH
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important cause of hospitalization and death in low- and middle- income countries. Yet morbidity and in-hospital mortality patterns remain poorly characterized, with prior antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure and treatment failure status largely unknown.
We studied HIV-infected inpatients aged ≥13 years from cohorts in Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), assessing clinical and demographic characteristics and hospitalization outcomes. Kenyan inpatients were prospectively enrolled during hospitalization; identical retrospective data were extracted for Congolese patients meeting the study criteria using routine medical information.
Among 338 HIV-infected patients in Kenya and 411 in DRC, 83.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.4%-87.3%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 95.2%-98.5%), were admitted with advanced disease (defined as CD4 <200 cells/µL or World Health Organization stage 3/4 illness). Among inpatients with advanced HIV, 35.4% and 21.7% were ART-naive at admission. Patients under care had a median time of 44.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 18.4-90.5) months and 55.9 (IQR, 28.1-99.6) months on treatment; 17.2% (95% CI, 13.5%-21.6%) and 29.6% (95% CI, 25.4%-34.3%) died, 25.9% (95% CI, 16.0%-39.0%) and 22.5% (95% CI, 15.8%-31.0%) of these within 48 hours.
Across 2 diverse clinical contexts in sub-Saharan Africa, advanced HIV inpatients were frequently admitted with low CD4 counts, often failing first-line ART. Earlier identification of treatment failure and rapid switching to second-line ART are needed.