BACKGROUND: War-wounded civilians in Middle East countries are at risk of post-traumatic osteomyelitis (PTO). We aimed to describe and compare the bacterial etiology and proportion of first-line antibiotics resistant bacteria (FLAR) among PTO cases in civilians from Syria, Iraq and Yemen admitted to the reconstructive surgical program of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Amman, Jordan, and to identify risk factors for developing PTO with FLAR bacteria.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the laboratory database of the MSF program. Inclusion criteria were: patients from Iraq, Yemen or Syria, admitted to the Amman MSF program between October 2006 and December 2016, with at least one bone biopsy sample culture result. Only bone samples taken during first orthopedic surgery were included in the analysis. To assess factors associated with FLAR infection, logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: 558 (76.7%) among 727 patients included had ≥1 positive culture results. 318 were from Iraq, 140 from Syria and 100 from Yemen. Median time since injury was 19 months [IQR 8-40]. Among the 732 different bacterial isolates, we identified 228 Enterobacteriaceae (31.5%), 193 Staphylococcus aureus (26.3%), 99 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.5%), and 21 Acinetobacter baumanii (2.8%). Three hundred and sixty four isolates were FLAR: 86.2% of Enterobacteriaceae, 53.4% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60.5% of S. aureus and 45% of Acinetobacter baumannii. There was no difference in bacterial etiology or proportion of FLAR according to the country of origin. In multivariate analysis, a FLAR infection was associated with an infection of the lower extremity, with a time since the injury ≤12 months compared with time > 30 months and with more than 3 previous surgeries.
CONCLUSIONS: Enterobacteriaceae were frequently involved in PTO in war wounded civilians from Iraq, Yemen and Syria between 2006 and 2016. Proportion of FLAR was high, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, regardless of country of origin.