Alternative observational designs to estimate the effectiveness of one dose of oral cholera vaccine in Lusaka, Zambia.

Authors: Ferreras E Blake A Chewe O Mwaba J Zulu G Poncin M Rakesh A Page AL Quilici ML Azman AS Cohuet S Ciglenecki I Malama K Chizema-Kawesha E Luquero FJ
Journal Reference: Epidemiology and infection 2020 Mar 13; 148(); e78. doi: 10.1017/S095026882000062X. Epub 2020 03 13
Cholera infectious disease epidemiology public health vaccine policy development


We conducted a matched case-control (MCC), test-negative case-control (TNCC) and case-cohort study in 2016 in Lusaka, Zambia, following a mass vaccination campaign. Confirmed cholera cases served as cases in all three study designs. In the TNCC, control-subjects were cases with negative cholera culture and polymerase chain reaction results. Matched controls by age and sex were selected among neighbours of the confirmed cases in the MCC study. For the case-cohort study, we recruited a cohort of randomly selected individuals living in areas considered at-risk of cholera. We recruited 211 suspected cases (66 confirmed cholera cases and 145 non-cholera diarrhoea cases), 1055 matched controls and a cohort of 921. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness of one dose of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was 88.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.7-97.8) in the MCC study, 80.2% (95% CI: 16.9-95.3) in the TNCC design and 89.4% (95% CI: 64.6-96.9) in the case-cohort study. Three study designs confirmed the short-term effectiveness of single dose OCV. Major healthcare-seeking behaviour bias did not appear to affect our estimates. Most of the protection among vaccinated individuals could be attributed to the direct effect of the vaccine.