BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of the lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LAM) in HIV-positive, ambulatory patients with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) only if they are seriously ill or have CD4 count ≤ 100 cells/μl. We assessed the diagnostic yield of including LAM in TB diagnostic algorithms in HIV-positive, ambulatory patients with CD4
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective observational study including HIV-positive adult patients with signs and symptoms of TB and CD4
CONCLUSIONS: LAM has diagnostic value for identifying TB in HIV-positive patients with signs and symptoms of TB and advanced immunodeficiency, including those with a CD4 count of 100-199 cells/μl. In this study, the use of LAM enabled the diagnosis of TB in half of the patients with confirmed TB disease; without LAM, these patients would have been missed. The rapid identification and treatment of TB enabled by LAM may decrease overall mortality risk for these patients.