Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies Directed against Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses and Associated Risk Factors in Madagascar, 2011 to 2013.

Broban A Olive MM Tantely ML Dorsemans AC Rakotomanana F Ravalohery JP Rogier C Heraud JM Andriamandimby SF
Viruses 2023 Aug 08; 15(8); . doi: 10.3390/v15081707. Epub 2023 08 08
Africa Madagascar West Nile virus arbovirus chikungunya virus dengue virus risk factors serosurvey


Arboviruses have been shown to circulate in Madagascar, including West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya viruses, though the extent of their circulation remains poorly documented. We estimated the seroprevalence of these three arboviruses in Madagascar and determined risk factors associated with seropositivity. Serum samples obtained from 1680 individuals surrounding the Sentinel Health Centers network in all regions of the country were analyzed using ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition assays for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile viruses IgG antibodies, and multivariate logistic regression models were run. Overall, 6.5% [IC 95% 3.2-9.9] were seropositive for dengue virus, predominantly of Dengue serotype 1, 13.7% [IC 95% 6.5-20.9] for chikungunya virus, and 12.7% [IC 95% 9.0-16.5] for West Nile virus. There was no association with age, showing that dengue and chikungunya viruses were likely recently introduced. Eastern and Northern parts were more affected by dengue and chikungunya viruses, while West Nile virus seemed to circulate in all parts of the country. Dengue and chikungunya seropositivity were notably associated with high levels of vegetation, as well as frequent work in the forest, and West Nile seropositivity with the presence of cultivated areas, as well as standard of living. This analysis gives a new insight into arboviruses circulation and transmission patterns in Madagascar.