The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climate patterns can have profound impacts on the occurrence of infectious diseases ranging from dengue to cholera.
BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites.
SETTING: In early studies, Xpert® MTB/RIF accurately detected culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Recent reports have, however, found a lower than expected specificity in previously treated TB patients.
Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo.
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern.
Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan.
Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns.
Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives.
INTRODUCTION: Although individual HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) show good performance in evaluations conducted by WHO, reports from several African countries highlight potentially significant performance issues.
BACKGROUND: Each year, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for about 37% of deaths from diarrhea among children younger than 5 years of age worldwide, with a disproportionate effect in sub-Saharan Africa.
Background: Despite increasing antimicrobial resistance globally, data are lacking on prevalence and factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and MRSA carriage in resource-limited settings.
Mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy in four African vertical programmes during the first decade of paediatric HIV care, 2001-2010.
OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in four African vertical programmes between 2001 and 2010.
antiretroviral therapy cohort studies mortality paediatrics treatment failure
BACKGROUND: The 2014-6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines.