El Niño and the shifting geography of cholera in Africa.


The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climate patterns can have profound impacts on the occurrence of infectious diseases ranging from dengue to cholera.

Authors: Moore SM Azman AS Zaitchik BF Mintz ED Brunkard J Legros D Hill A McKay H Luquero FJ Olson D Lessler J
Journal Reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2017 04 25; 114(17); 4436-4441. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617218114. Epub 2017 04 10
Bayesian mapping El Niño Southern Oscillation cholera climate and health disease mapping

Predictors of delayed culture conversion among Ugandan patients.


BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites.

Authors: Atwine D Orikiriza P Taremwa I Ayebare A Logoose S Mwanga-Amumpaire J Jindani A Bonnet M
Journal Reference: BMC infectious diseases 2017 04 24; 17(1); 299. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2335-7. Epub 2017 04 24
Delayed culture conversion Efficacy HIV-negative TB patients Time-to-detection Treatment failure

Effect of previous treatment and sputum quality on diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF.


SETTING: In early studies, Xpert® MTB/RIF accurately detected culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Recent reports have, however, found a lower than expected specificity in previously treated TB patients.

Authors: Acuña-Villaorduña C Orikiriza P Nyehangane D White LF Mwanga-Amumpaire J Kim S Bonnet M Fennelly KP Boum Y Jones-López EC
Journal Reference: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2017 04 01; 21(4); 389-397. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.16.0785. Epub 2018 03 01

Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo.


Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern.

Authors: Baraka V Delgado-Ratto C Nag S Ishengoma DS Madebe RA Mavoko HM Nabasumba C Lutumba P Alifrangis M Van Geertruyden JP
Journal Reference: International journal of antimicrobial agents 2017 Apr ; 49(4); 456-464. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.12.007. Epub 2017 02 22
Drug resistance Microsatellites Molecular evolution Pfdhps Plasmodium falciparum Sulfadoxine

Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan.


Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns.

Authors: Parker LA Rumunu J Jamet C Kenyi Y Lino RL Wamala JF Mpairwe AM Ciglenecki I Luquero FJ Azman AS Cabrol JC
Journal Reference: The Lancet. Infectious diseases 2017 04 ; 17(4); e123-e127. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30472-8. Epub 2017 01 19

Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives.


INTRODUCTION: Although individual HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) show good performance in evaluations conducted by WHO, reports from several African countries highlight potentially significant performance issues.

Authors: Kosack CS Page AL Beelaert G Benson T Savane A Ng'ang'a A Andre B Zahinda JB Shanks L Fransen K
Journal Reference: Journal of the International AIDS Society 2017 03 24; 19(1); 21345. doi: 10.7448/IAS.20.1.21345. Epub 2017 08 30
HIV RDT diagnostic false positive test

Efficacy of a Low-Cost, Heat-Stable Oral Rotavirus Vaccine in Niger.


BACKGROUND: Each year, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for about 37% of deaths from diarrhea among children younger than 5 years of age worldwide, with a disproportionate effect in sub-Saharan Africa.

Authors: Isanaka S Guindo O Langendorf C Matar Seck A Plikaytis BD Sayinzoga-Makombe N McNeal MM Meyer N Adehossi E Djibo A Jochum B Grais RF
Journal Reference: The New England journal of medicine 2017 03 23; 376(12); 1121-1130. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1609462. Epub 2017 04 28

Prevalence and correlates of MRSA and MSSA nasal carriage at a Ugandan regional referral hospital.


Background: Despite increasing antimicrobial resistance globally, data are lacking on prevalence and factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and MRSA carriage in resource-limited settings.

Authors: Bebell LM Ayebare A Boum Y Siedner MJ Bazira J Schiff SJ Metlay JP Bangsberg DR Ttendo S Firth PG
Journal Reference: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 2017 03 01; 72(3); 888-892. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw472. Epub 2017 10 10

Mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy in four African vertical programmes during the first decade of paediatric HIV care, 2001-2010.


OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in four African vertical programmes between 2001 and 2010.

Authors: Ben-Farhat J Schramm B Nicolay N Wanjala S Szumilin E Balkan S Pujades-Rodríguez M
Journal Reference: Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 2017 03 ; 22(3); 340-350. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12830. Epub 2017 01 26

antiretroviral therapy cohort studies mortality paediatrics treatment failure

Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials.


BACKGROUND: The 2014-6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines.

Authors: Hitchings MD Grais RF Lipsitch M
Journal Reference: PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2017 03 ; 11(3); e0005470. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005470. Epub 2017 03 22