Changes Over Time in the Proportion of Advanced HIV Disease in Two High HIV Prevalence Settings in Ndhiwa (Kenya) and Eshowe (South Africa).

Chihana M Conan N Ohler L Huerga H Wanjala S Masiku C Szumilin E Ellman T Etard JF Maman D Davies MA
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 2024 ; 23; . doi: 10.1177/23259582241260219. Epub 2024 06 17
ART CD4 HIV advanced HIV cascade of care population-level


BACKGROUND: The burden of advanced HIV disease remains a significant concern in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, the World Health Organization released recommendations to treat all people living with HIV (PLHIV) regardless of CD4 ("treat all") and in 2017 guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease. We assessed changes over time in the proportion of PLHIV with advanced HIV and their care cascade in two community settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Ndhiwa (Kenya) in 2012 and 2018 and in Eshowe (South Africa) in 2013 and 2018. We recruited individuals aged 15-59 years. Consenting participants were interviewed and tested for HIV at home. All participants with HIV had CD4 count measured. Advanced HIV was defined as CD4 < 200 cells/µL.

RESULTS: Overall, 6076 and 6001 individuals were included in 2012 and 2018 (Ndhiwa) and 5646 and 3270 individuals in 2013 and 2018 (Eshowe), respectively. In Ndhiwa, the proportion of PLHIV with advanced HIV decreased from 2012 (159/1376 (11.8%; 95% CI: 9.8-14.2)) to 2018 (53/1000 (5.0%; 3.8-6.6)). The proportion of individuals with advanced HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 9.1% (6.9-11.8) in 2012 and 4.2% (3.0-5.8) in 2018. In Eshowe, the proportion with advanced HIV was 130/1400 (9.8%; 8.0-11.9) in 2013 and 38/834 (4.5%; 3.3-6.1) in 2018. The proportion with advanced HIV among those on ART was 6.9% (5.5-8.8) in 2013 and 2.8% (1.8-4.3) in 2018. There was a significant increase in coverage for all steps of the care cascade among people with advanced HIV between the two Ndhiwa surveys, with all the changes occurring among men and not women. No significant changes were observed in Eshowe between the surveys overall and by sex.

CONCLUSION: The proportion with advanced HIV disease decreased between the first and second surveys where all guidelines have been implemented between the two HIV surveys.