Two hundred patients with diarrhoea in a rehabilitation camp in Ethiopia were studied in October 1985 to determine the presence of pathogens in the stool and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 42 (21.1%) patients had a positive culture with enterobacteriaceae, the isolation rate was 15.6% for Escherichia coli, 3.5% for Shigella spp. and 2.01% for Salmonella spp. In-vitro antibiotic resistance was frequent among the 42 isolates: 53% of E. coli strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 47% to chloramphenicol, 30% to co-trimoxazole and 67% to tetracycline. Of the seven Shigella, three were resistant to chloramphenicol and four to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance (two or more antibiotics) was observed in 52.3% of the 42 isolates. The protocols used for the screening of dysenteric patients for Shigella spp. or Salmonella spp. were found to be specific but poorly sensitive. The opposite was observed for amoebiasis and giardiasis. The responsibility of widespread use of common oral antibiotics is discussed as one of the major factors of antibiotic resistance occurrence at Korem.