Factors associated with HIV status awareness and Linkage to Care following home based testing in rural Malawi.

Auteurs: Maman D Ben-Farhat J Chilima B Masiku C Salumu L Ford N Mendiharat P Szumilin E Masson S Etard JF
Référence de l'article: Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 2016 Nov ; 21(11); 1442-1451. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12772. Epub 2016 10 07
Afrique subsaharienne Epidemiología Vinculación con atención sanitaria cascada de tratamiento cascade de soins cascade of care connexion aux soins enquête de population epidemiology estudio de poblaciones linkage to care population survey sub-Saharan Africa África Subsahariana épidémiologie


OBJECTIVE: HIV diagnosis and linkage to care are the main barriers in Africa to achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. We assessed HIV-positive status awareness and linkage to care among survey participants in Chiradzulu District, Malawi.

METHOD: Nested cohort study within a population-based survey of persons aged 15-59 years between February and May 2013. Participants were interviewed and tested for HIV (and CD4 if found HIV-positive) in their homes. Multivariable regression was used to determine factors associated with HIV-positive status awareness prior to the survey and subsequent linkage to care.

RESULTS: Of 8277 individuals eligible for the survey, 7270 (87.8%) participated and were tested for HIV. The overall HIV prevalence was 17.0%. Among HIV-positive participants, 77.0% knew their status and 72.8% were in care. Women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.5, 95% CI 3.2-13.1) and older participants (40-59 vs. 15-29 years, aOR 10.1, 95% CI 4.0-25.9) were more likely to be aware of their positive status. Of those newly diagnosed, 47.5% were linked to care within 3 months. Linkage to care was higher among older participants (40-59 vs. 15-29, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.39, 95% CI 1.83-6.26), women (aHR 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.67) and those eligible for ART (aHR 1.61, 95% CI 1.03-2.52).

CONCLUSIONS: In settings with high levels of HIV awareness, home-based testing remains an efficient strategy to diagnose and link to care. Men were less likely to be diagnosed, and when diagnosed to link to care, underscoring the need for a gender focus in order to achieve the 90-90-90 targets.

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.