Neonatal deaths comprise a growing proportion of global under-five mortality. However, data from the highest-burden areas is sparse. This descriptive retrospective study analyses the outcomes of all infants exiting the Médecins sans Frontières-managed neonatal unit in Aweil Hospital, rural South Sudan from 2011 to 2014. A total of 4268 patients were treated over 4 years, with annual admissions increasing from 687 to 1494. Overall mortality was 13.5% (n = 576), declining from 18.7% to 11.1% (p for trend
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