Individual and household risk factors for Ebola disease among household contacts in Mubende and Kassanda districts, Uganda, 2022.

Migamba SM Ardiet DL Migisha R Nansikombi HT Agaba B Naiga HN Wanyana M Zalwango JF Atuhaire I Kawungezi PC Zalwango MG Simbwa B Kadobera D Ario AR Harris JR
BMC infectious diseases 2024 May 30; 24(1); . doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09439-1. Epub 2024 05 30
Ebola disease Sudan virus Sudan virus disease Uganda


BACKGROUND: In 2022, an Ebola disease outbreak caused by Sudan virus (SUDV) occurred in Uganda, primarily affecting Mubende and Kassanda districts. We determined risk factors for SUDV infection among household members (HHM) of cases.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control and retrospective cohort study in January 2023. Cases were RT-PCR-confirmed SUDV infection in residents of Mubende or Kassanda districts during the outbreak. Case-households housed a symptomatic, primary case-patient for ≥ 24 h and had ≥ 1 secondary case-patient with onset 

RESULTS: Case- and control-households had similar median sizes. Among 19 case-households and 51 control households, primary case-patient death (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 7.6, 95% CI 1.4-41) and ≥ 2 household bedrooms (OR=0.19, 95% CI 0.056-0.71) were associated with case-household status. In the cohort of 76 case-HHM, 44 (58%) were tested for SUDV 

CONCLUSION: Direct contact, particularly providing nursing care for and sharing sleeping space with SVD patients, increased infection risk among HHM. Risk assessments during contact tracing may provide evidence to justify closer monitoring of some HHM. Health messaging should highlight the risk of sharing sleeping spaces and providing nursing care for persons with Ebola disease symptoms and emphasize hand hygiene to aid early case identification and reduce transmission.

© 2024. The Author(s).