Integration of HIV Testing in a Community Intervention for Tuberculosis Screening Among Household Contacts of Patients with Tuberculosis in Cameroon and Uganda.

Youngui BT Atwine D Otai D Vasiliu A Ssekyanzi B Sih C Kana R Arinaitwe R Cuer B Simo L Okello R Tchendjou P Casenghi M Kuate AK Turyahabwe S Cohn J Bonnet M Tchounga BK
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2024 Apr 15; 95(5); . doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000003379. Epub 2024 03 11


INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV are considered at higher risk of developing severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Providing HIV testing to TB-exposed people is therefore critical. We present the results of integrating HIV testing into a community-based intervention for household TB contact management in Cameroon and Uganda.

METHODS: Trained community health workers visited the households of index patients with TB identified in 3 urban/semiurban and 6 rural districts or subdistricts as part of a cluster-randomized trial and provided TB screening to all household contacts. Voluntary HIV counseling and testing were offered to contacts aged 5 years or older with unknown HIV status. We describe the cascade of care for HIV testing and the factors associated with the acceptance of HIV testing.

RESULTS: Overall, 1983 household contacts aged 5 years or older were screened for TB. Of these contacts, 1652 (83.3%) did not know their HIV status, 1457 (88.2%) accepted HIV testing, and 1439 (98.8%) received testing. HIV testing acceptance was lower among adults than children [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.55], those living in household of an HIV-positive vs HIV-negative index case (aOR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.83), and contacts requiring a reassessment visit after the initial TB screening visit vs asymptomatic contacts (aOR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.67) and was higher if living in Uganda vs Cameroon (aOR = 4.54, 95% CI: 1.17 to 17.62) or if another contact of the same index case was tested for HIV (aOR = 9.22, 95% CI: 5.25 to 16.18).

CONCLUSION: HIV testing can be integrated into community-based household TB contact screening and is well-accepted.

Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.