OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of community- and hospital-acquired bacteremia among hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition in Niger.
METHODS: A descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted in an intensive nutritional rehabilitation center in Madarounfa, Niger. Children aged 6 to 59 months admitted for inpatient treatment of complicated severe acute malnutrition (n=2187) had blood specimens drawn at admission to assess prevalence of community-acquired bacteremia. Subsequent specimens were drawn per physician discretion to assess incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on positive blood cultures.
RESULTS: The prevalence of community-acquired bacteremia at admission was at least 9.1% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4%), with non-typhoid Salmonella identified in over half (57.8%) of cases. The cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia was estimated at 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.7%), among which the most common organisms were Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%), Acinetobacter baumannii (16.1%), Enterococcus faecalis (12.9%), and Escherichia coli (12.9%). Among community-acquired bacteremia, 58% were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate; 100% of hospital-acquired bacteremia were resistant to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. Mortality risk was elevated among children with hospital-acquired bacteremia (RR=9.32) and community-acquired bacteremia (RR=2.67).
CONCLUSION: Bacteremia was a significant contributor to mortality. Antibiotic resistance poses a challenge to effective clinical management of SAM.
Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Ltd.