BACKGROUND: Concomitant use of bedaquiline (Bdq) and delamanid (Dlm) for multi-drug/rifampicin resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) has raised concerns about a potentially poor risk-benefit ratio. Yet, this combination is an important alternative for patients infected with strains of TB with complex drug resistance profiles or who cannot tolerate other therapies. We assessed safety and treatment outcomes of MDR/RR-TB patients receiving concomitant Bdq and Dlm, along with other second-line anti-TB drugs.
METHODS: We conducted a multi-centric, prospective observational cohort study across 14 countries among patients receiving concomitant Bdq-Dlm treatment. Patients were recruited between April 2015 and September 2018 and were followed until the end of treatment. All serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest (AESI), leading to a treatment change, or judged significant by a clinician, were systematically monitored and documented.
RESULTS: Overall, 472 patients received Bdq and Dlm concomitantly. A large majority also received linezolid (89.6%) and clofazimine (84.5%). Nearly all (90.3%) had extensive disease; most (74.2%) had resistance to fluoroquinolones. The most common AESI were peripheral neuropathy (134, 28.4%) and electrolyte depletion (94, 19.9%). Acute kidney injury and myelosuppression were seen in 40 (8.5%) and 24 (5.1%) of patients, respectively. QT prolongation occurred in 7 (1.5%). Overall, 78.0% (358/458) had successful treatment outcomes, 8.9% died and 7.2% experienced treatment failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of Bdq and Dlm, along with linezolid and clofazimine, is safe and effective for MDR/RR-TB patients with extensive disease. Using these drugs concomitantly is a good therapeutic option for patients with resistance to many anti-TB drugs.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.