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Meningitis outbreaks and vaccination strategy.


Three outbreaks of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (subgroup III) are described: Niger (1991), Burundi (1992), and Guinea (1993).

Varaine F Caugant DA Riou JY Kondé MK Soga G Nshimirimana D Muhirwa G Ott D Høiby EA Fermon F Moren A
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene ; 91(1); 3-7. doi: . Epub 1997 04 17

Epidemics of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis of subgroup III in Africa, 1989-94.


A total of 125 strains of Neisseria meningitidis recovered in the course of outbreaks from patients with systemic disease in 11 African countries between 1989 and 1994 were analysed by serogrouping, serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

Guibourdenche M Høiby EA Riou JY Varaine F Joguet C Caugant DA
Epidemiology and infection 1996 Apr ; 116(2); 115-20. doi: . Epub 1996 06 18

[An outbreak of Heliotrope food poisoning, Tadjikistan, November 1992-March 1993].


The seeds and roots of Heliotropium lasocarpium, contain a pyrrolizidine alkaloid which causes toxic liver injury and veno-occlusive disease (VOD), characterised by an occlusive lesion of the centrolobular veins of the liver, when consumed by humans.

Chauvin P Dillon JC Moren A
Sante (Montrouge, France) ; 4(4); 263-8. doi: . Epub 1994 11 21